One can imagine an animal angry, frightened, unhappy, happy, startled. But hopeful? And why not?
A dog believes his master is at the door. But can he also believe his master will come the day after to-morrow?–And what can he not do here?–How do I do it?–How am I supposed to answer this?
Can only those hope who can talk? Only those was have mastered the use of a language. That is to say, the phenomena of hope are modes of this complicated form of life. (If a concept refers to a character of human handwriting, it has no application to beings that do not write.)
—The Philosophical Investigations, Part II, section i